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National Museum of Nuclear Science & History

List of European Refugees

The Second World War displaced millions across Europe, and many faced persecution due to their religion, sexuality, political identity, or that of their family members, among other reasons. Many among the European refugees of the time were prominent scientists. The following is a list of refugees who contributed to the Manhattan Project, as well as other scientists and their family members who were forced to flee.

Document Type:
Hans Bethe, Giulio Fermi, Enrico Fermi, and Paul Teller in Los Alamos

Refugees who were involved with the Manhattan Project:

Hans Bethe

Rose Bethe

Felix Bloch

S. H. Bohine

Niels Bohr

Hans Courant

Albert Einstein

Enrico Fermi

Giulio Fermi

Laura Fermi

Nella Fermi Warner

James Franck

Gerhart Friedlander

Otto Frisch

Klaus Fuchs

Samuel Goudsmit

Hans Halban

Lilli Hornig

Lew Kowarski

Rolf Landshoff

Irene LaViolette

Peter Lax

Rudolf Peierls

George Placzek

Isidor Rabi

Eugene Rabinowitch

Chaim Richman

Bruno Rossi

Joseph Rotblat

Emilio Segrè

Edgar Sengier

John Shacter

Leo Szilard

Edward Teller

Mici Teller

Stanislaw Ulam

John von Neumann

Victor Weisskopf

Eugene Wigner


Other refugee scientists:

Max Born

Robert Fano

Ugo Fano

Sigmund Freud­­

Bernard Katz

Walter Kohn

Hans Adolf Krebs

Hilde Levi

Lise Meitner (refused a position at Los Alamos)

Arthur von Hippel


More Historical Resources:

For more information on the scientific exodus which resulted from World War II, please click here.